Gum Disease Connected to Systemic Diseases
Oral infections are on the rise, even in the most advanced countries with the best health care systems. Perhaps more disturbing is the increasingly apparent connection between gum disease and debilitating diseases.
Oral infection does affect the course and pathogenesis of a number of systemic diseases. Such as cardiovascular disease, bacterial pneumonia, diabetes mellitus, and low birth weight.
How Oral Infections Lead to Systemic Disease
According to the US National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health, there are three mechanisms or pathways linking oral infections to secondary systemic effects. Moreover, pathways are a metastatic spread of infection from the oral cavity. As a result of transient bacteremia, metastatic injury from the effects of circulating oral microbial toxins, and metastatic inflammation. Furthermore, caused by immunological injury induced by oral microorganisms.
Oral infections and dental procedures can cause transient bacteremia. When microrganisms gain entrance to the blood and circulate throughout the body, they are eliminated by the reticuloendothelial system. As a rule lead to no other clinical symptoms than possibly a slight increase in body temperature. However, if the disseminated microorganisms find favorable conditions, they may settle at a given site and start to multiply.
Some gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria have the ability to produce diffusible proteins, or exotoxins. These include cytolytic enzymes and dimeric toxins with A and B subunits. Exotoxins take specific pharmacological actions. Exotoxins are powerful and lethal toxins. Conversely, endotoxins are part of the outer membranes that release after cell death. Endotoxin is compositionally a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) that, when introduced into the host, gives rise to a number of pathological manifestations. LPS is continuously shed from periodontal gram-negative rods during their growth in vivo.
Soluble antigen may enter the bloodstream, react with circulating specific antibody, and form a macromolecular complex. These immunocomplexes may give rise to a variety of acute and chronic inflammatory reactions at the sites of deposition.
Most studies concerning the relationship between oral infection and systemic diseases are related to periodontal disease. These are by far the most common oral infection. Brushing, flossing, and oral rinses are the greatest tools to prevent gum disease.
Dr. Dhawan at The Colorado Center for Implant and Prosthetic Dentistry is available to help you determine effective solutions to your dental problems. If you would like more information from your Littleton area Prosthodontist, please call to make an appointment today.